In Hindu cosmology, it is said that the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. Deeply rooted in the texts of Hindu literature, including the Vedas and the Puranas, is the belief time is divided into four epochs or Yuga, of which we occupy the final. In roughly 432,000 years, it is believed that the Avatar Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu, will bring the end time of climax of world events. Hindu cosmology also describes aspects of evolution, astronomy, and astrology.
The Hindu timeline is considered by some to be the closest to modern scientific timelines.It suggests that the Big Bang is not the beginning of everything, but is just the start of a present cycle preceded by an infinite number of universes and to be followed by another infinite number of universes.
The concept of the multiverse is mentioned many times in Hindu Puranic literature, such as in the Bhagavata Purana:
Every universe is covered by seven layers — earth, water, fire, air, sky, the total energy and false ego — each ten times greater than the previous one. There are innumerable universes besides this one, and although they are unlimitedly large, they move about like atoms in You. Therefore You are called unlimited (Bhagavata Purana 6.16.37)
After separating the different universes, the gigantic universal form of the Lord, which came out of the causal ocean, the place of appearance for the first puruṣa-avatāra, entered into each of the separate universes, desiring to lie on the created transcendental water (Bhagavata Purana 2.10.10)
The number of universes seems to be uncountable, immeasurable, or incalculable according to the Puranic literature:
Even though over a period of time I might count all the atoms of the universe, I could not count all of My opulences which I manifest within innumerable universes (Bhagavata Purana 11.16.39)
Analogies to describe multiple universes also exist in the Puranic literature:
What am I, a small creature measuring seven spans of my own hand? I am enclosed in a potlike universe composed of material nature, the total material energy, false ego, ether, air, water and earth. And what is Your glory? Unlimited universes pass through the pores of Your body just as particles of dust pass through the openings of a screened window (Bhagavata Purana 10.14.11)
Because You are unlimited, neither the lords of heaven nor even You Yourself can ever reach the end of Your glories. The countless universes, each enveloped in its shell, are compelled by the wheel of time to wander within You, like particles of dust blowing about in the sky. The śrutis, following their method of eliminating everything separate from the Supreme, become successful by revealing You as their final conclusion (Bhagavata Purana 10.87.41)
The layers or elements covering the universes are each ten times thicker than the one before, and all the universes clustered together appear like atoms in a huge combination (Bhagavata Purana 3.11.41)
Yoga Vashishtha, the text which states conversations between Vashistha, a rig Vedic teacher, and various Gods and Kakbhusundi, a creature which stands outside of normal time and sees all. It recounts the cyclical nature of time, where Kakabhushundi has seen Ramayan 11 times with different outcomes and seen Mahabharat 16 times with different results, but, after seeing Daksha Yagya twice, he did not either care to see it again or saw no point to seeing anymore, as it ended the same way each time.
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